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Later, the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate.
Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war; he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704.
Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg".
Local residents often refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter (Russian: ).
By the 1840s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various romanticist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider (Mariinsky Palace, Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, New Michael Palace) and Konstantin Thon (Moskovsky railway station).
With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into the capital increased greatly.
Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May [O. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site.In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son.In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow.During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress.However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan.
By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals.